454 Sequencing Systems Aid in Discovery of Novel Canine Hepatitis C Virus
Human hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects approximately 200 million people worldwide. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 3.2 million people in the United States are chronically infected. Until recently, studies into the origin of hepatitis C and how it causes disease in humans have been limited by the absence of closely related viruses and lack of animal and cell culture models.
The study, led by researchers from the Center for Infection and Immunity at Columbia University and the University of Edinburg, began as an investigation to characterize respiratory viruses infecting domestic dogs. Using high-throughput sequencing with the GS FLX System, from 454 Life Sciences, a Roche Company, the researchers discovered an unknown hepacivirus that was more similar to HCV than any discovered to date. Further analysis determined that like HCV, CHV's genome contained Genome Scale Ordered RNA structures (GORS), secondary structures that allow viruses to chronically infect their natural hosts. Moreover, the sequence of genes that encode proteins involved in virus infection and replication were very similar between HCV and CHV.
The study findings suggest that the HCV virus may have been introduced into human populations through contact with dogs, and that it may be more widely distributed among mammalian species than previously thought.
"The identification and characterization of CHV signals the advent of a new, tractable animal model for hepatitis C," said Dr. Ian Lipkin, Director of the Center for Infection and Immunity at Columbia University. "This discovery provides new tools for understanding how this virus causes disease, and will facilitate drug and vaccine research and development.
"Using powerful genomic technologies, researchers are beginning to understand the diverse ecosystem of bacteria and viruses that live around us, on us, within us and even within our pets," explained Christopher McLeod, President and CEO of 454 Life Sciences. "This surprise finding is yet another example of how 454 Sequencing Systems offer researchers a powerful tool to detect novel viruses and pathogens in a wide range of hosts."
For more information on 454 Sequencing Systems, visit www.454.com.
Roche Diagnostics Deutschland GmbH
Headquartered in Basel, Switzerland, Roche is a leader in research-focused healthcare with combined strengths in pharmaceuticals and diagnostics. Roche is the world's largest biotech company with truly differentiated medicines in oncology, virology, inflammation, metabolism and CNS. Roche is also the world leader in in-vitro diagnostics, tissue-based cancer diagnostics and a pioneer in diabetes management. Roche's personalised healthcare strategy aims at providing medicines and diagnostic tools that enable tangible improvements in the health, quality of life and survival of patients. In 2010, Roche had over 80'000 employees worldwide and invested over 9 billion Swiss francs in R&D. The Group posted sales of 47.5 billion Swiss francs. Genentech, United States, is a wholly owned member of the Roche Group. Roche has a majority stake in Chugai Pharmaceutical, Japan. For more information: www.roche.com.