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Considering hydrazine-free satellite propulsion
Hydrazine has been the satellite monopropellant of choice for more than half a century, but that era might potentially be reaching its end.
Now ESA is seeking industrial bids to study how propulsion system hardware might best be requalified to work with an alternative, less toxic alternative.
In 2011 the European Commission's Registration of Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) framework legislation added hydrazine to its candidate list of "substances of very high concern".
This step increases the risk that the use of hydrazine will be prohibited or restricted in the near- to mid-term.
While ESA is pursuing possible exemptions for hydrazine for space uses, additional mitigation of this risk has been judged necessary, including the development of new 'green' propellants as a replacement for hydrazine and other high toxicity propellants along with associated hardware
In Europe, the most mature propellant option to serve as a hydrazine replacement is the High Performance Green Propulsion 'LMP-103S' - ammonium dinitrimide-based monopropellant - developed by Sweden's ECAPS, part of the Swedish Space Corporation Group.
A 1 N thruster using LMP-103S has been developed to its 'critical design review', with follow-on developments of both the thruster and propellant in preparation. The next step is to consider the other hardware in the propulsion system.
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